convert non-null-terminated char-array to std::string

std::string ccy (ptr->ccy, ptr->ccy+3); //using a special string() ctor

my ptr->ccy is the address of a 3-char array, but it’s immediately followed by other chars belonging to another field, in a tightly packed struct without padding. If you simply pass ptr->ccy to string() ctor, your string will take in many extra chars until a null terminator.


mutex: allocated in heap or global memory

In java, mutex is always in heap. Primitive objects can’t be host to a mutex.

In pthreads, mutex object can be allocated anywhere, but I have seen it allocated only in heap or in global area.

In C, you can also allocate mutex in shared memory, creating a cross-process mutex! Not a common practice in java.

Q: what if I allocate a mutex in stack?
A: in java,the actual object is still on heap,though the variable is on stack and invisible to other threads
A: in C, the entire mutex object can be on stack, but such a mutex is useless. Imagine a lock on a door with a single key to be shared, but other people have their own doors, so there’s no synchronization no access control at all:(

symlink/hardlink: Win7 or later is a 2017 article.

The mklink command can create both hard links (known as “hard links” in Windows) and soft links (known as “symbolic links” in Windows).

On Windows XP, I have used “Junction.exe” for years, because mklink is not available.