4 components@latency

  1. Propagation delay — Amount of time required for a message to travel from the sender to receiver, which is a function of distance.
  2. Transmission delay — Amount of time required to push all the packet’s bits into the link, which is a function of the packet’s length and data rate of the link, and has nothing to do with distance
  3. Processing delay — Amount of time required to process the packet header, check for bit-level errors, and determine the packet’s destination. Personally, I would think application logic also introduces processing delay.
  4. Queuing delay —  Amount of time the packet is waiting in the queue until it can be processed. Personally, I would guess that a larger buffer tends to exacerbate queuing delay. I would say there are often multiple queuing points along the critical path, like an airport.

From https://hpbn.co/primer-on-latency-and-bandwidth/.

 

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