# making out a little-endian 32-bit int

Let’s set the stage — We have a stream of bytes in little-endian format. Let’s understand it according to the spec. The struct is packed tight without padding.

Spec says left-most field is a char. It is always on the left-most, regardless of endianness. If we look at the 8 bits, they are normal. 0x41 is ‘A’. Within the 8 bits, no reordering due to endianness.

Spec says next four bytes is an integer. Most significant bit (suppose a one) is on the right end, representing 2^31. What’s the integer value? To work out by hand, we need to pick the four bytes as is — Byte1 Byte2 Byte3 Byte4. Then we reverse them into Byte4 Byte 3 Byte2 Byte1. Now this 32-bit integer is human-readable. The human-readable form is now a binary number taught in classrooms.

Note the software program still uses the original “Byte1 Byte2 Byte3 Byte4” and can print out the correct integer value.

Spec says next four bytes is a float. There’s nothing I can do to make out its value without a computer, so I don’t bother to rearrange the bytes.

Next 2 bytes is a string like “XY”. First byte is “X”. Endian-ness doesn’t bother us.