use a (possibly nested) namespace to group related free functions. See google style guide.
c# has static classes. C++ offers something similar — P120 effC++. It’s a struct containing static fields. You are free to create multiple instances of this struct, but there’s just one copy for each field object. Kind of alternative design for a singleton.
This simulates a namespace.
In [[DougLea]] P86, this foremost OO expert briefly noted that it can be best practice to replace a java singleton with an all-static class
–c# is the most avant-garde on this front
- C# static class can be stateful but rarely are
- it can have a private ctor