Compared to linked data structures, I feel vectors (and array, deque, circular array, unrolled linked list…) reduce page faults and cache miss.
P124 [[art of debugging]] describes how a simple array is loaded from swap space into a real memory “page”. This is managed by the virtual memory system.
P19 [[optimized c++]] describes that L1 or L2 cache also loads vector more efficiently than a linked data structure. For example, each time main memory is read, the adjacent memory cells are loaded together into L1 cache, so contiguous memory data structures result in much fewer cache miss, in theory.
A virtual memory page is about 4KB. A cache line is about 64B.
Both page fault and cache miss are costly at runtime. In both cases the “backing store” is much slower but we have to read from it. These situations are both common and by-design, but it pays to reduce their /incidence/occurrence. Even if we reduce page fault frequency or cache miss frequency by 10%, it could be helpful.