http://stackoverflow.com/questions/6121623/catching-exception-divide-by-zero — c++ standard says division-by-zero results in undefined behavior (just like deleting Derived via a Base pointer without virtual dtor). Therefore programmer must assume the responsibility to prevent it.
A compliant c++ compiler could generate object code to throw an exception (nice:) or do something else (uh :-() like core dump.
If you are like me you wonder why no exception. Short answer — c++ is a low-level language. Stroustrup said, in “The Design and Evolution of C++” (Addison Wesley, 1994), “low-level events, such as arithmetic overflows and divide by zero, are assumed to be handled by a dedicated lower-level mechanism rather than by exceptions. This enables C++ to match the behavior of other languages when it comes to arithmetic. It also avoids the problems that occur on heavily pipelined architectures where events such as divide by zero are asynchronous.”.
C doesn’t have exceptions and handles division-by-zero with some kind of run time error (http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/C_Programming/Error_handling). C++ probably inherited that in spirit. However, [[c++primer]] shows you can create your own divideByZero subclass of a base Exception class.
java has no “undefined behavior” and generates an exception instead.