In reality, few governments follow the gold standard, but it’s instructive to consider what if they do.
Annual gold mining output is steady and presumably quite low.
If there’s an authority controlling the total number of HK dollars in circulation  and that authority ensures every dollar “created” is backed by a fixed quantity of gold in its reserve, and if every country adopts a similar gold standard, then any time we would be able to mathematically convert all the dollars to gold and all the yens to gold…. and the total gold reserve is still less than total physical gold ever “dug up”. This would be a truly effective control on inflation.
Central banks could print currency easily (inflation) when there’s no gold standard, but no CB can suddenly get 10 times more gold. To obtain more gold, the country must export and receive payment in foreign currency, which are legal claims on the gold reserve of that country. In the late 19th century, many colonial powers coerced China to pay “compensation” in the form of gold.
 But how does that authority control banks lending huge amounts in dollars therefore creating dollars? I think answer lies somewhere around the regulation. An unregulated private lender (e.g. loan shark, venture capital, pure-play investment banks) can lend $10b and charge an exorbitant interest amount of $1t, but how does the debtor get the $1t to repay? It has to sell something then collect real USD, which is controlled by the authority. When inflation rises to 50% a year, that can only be a central bank action, not a market action.