#1pitfall in return-by-ref: pointee lifetime

See the post on using out parameter to return by ref

Q: Return by reference is very common in C++, but there’s a common pitfall, that everyone must always remember?
A: pointee object’s lifetime (not “scope”).

Q2: common, practical safeguards?
A: return a field by reference, where the host object has a longer lifetime
A: return a static object by reference, either class-static, global variables, or function-static. P150 [[NittyGrittyC++]] has a useful example.

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