ref-counter Garbage collector

#1 drawback = “island”. Probably uncurable.
#2 drawback = “unavoidable[1] overhead[2]” in terms of ref-counter updates for (almost) every assign and every “unassign”
The #2 drawback is not the only “unavoidable overhead” — There’s also an unavoidable overhead in a handle-table compactor GC, which
maps every variable [3] to a handle, and every handle to an address in the jvm’s memory space. This adds one additional level to a
direct variable-addr mapping. Probably additional CPU cycle required for every variable[3] load or store.

ref-counter is the only GC without root objects.

[1] Most if not all other GC algorithms add overheads[2] in other ways but They don’t add overhead for every single assign.
[2] overheads = additional CPU cycles
[3] excluding primitives

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